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宾语从句专项复习[2011年中考英语复习]

 

 

复习内容:宾语从句考点归纳

复习目标:

1.掌握引导宾语从句的各种连词

2.掌握宾语从句的语序──主句+连接词+主语+谓语

3.掌握宾语从句,主句与从句在时态上的呼应。

重点:语序和时态呼应

难点:语序和时态呼应;与疑问词+不定式的转化;与状语从句的辨析

考点梳理:

一、宾语从句的连接词

1.连词that,只起连接作用,在从句中不作句子成分,也无词汇意义,在口语中常被省略。

eg. He knew (that) he should work hard.

2.连词if 、whether,它们起连接作用,在从句中不作句子成分,作“是否”解,在口语中多用if。

eg. Tom don't know if/whether his grandpa liked the present.

He asked me whether or not I was coming.

一般情况下,if 和whether可以互换,但以下3种情况只能用whether:

①在不定式前:Whether to go there or not hasn't been decided.

②在介词前:It depends on(依靠) whether it is going to rain.

③与or not连用:They are talking about whether to go there or not.

3.连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which,连接副词when, where, why, how, 它们起连接作用,作句子成分,各有自己的意义。

eg. The teacher asked the new students which class he was in.

I wonder where he got so much money.

【注意】

1.由连接代、副词引导的宾语从句可以和“疑问词+不定式”结构转化。

eg. I don't know how I should do with the presents. ==> I don't know how to do with the presents.

2.要注意区分判断由if、when引导的从句类型.

二、宾语从句的语序

宾语从句的语序是陈述语序,即“连接词+主语+谓语+其它成分”。特别强调:它的主语和谓语的语序是陈述语序,而不是疑问句的倒装结构。

Can you tell me who(m) do we have to see?(╳)

Can you tell me who(m) we have to see?( √)

The teacher asked the students what they were doing.(思考: what在从句中的成分)

陈述句变为宾语从句时,要注意人称和时态的变化,语序不变。 eg. She said, “I will leave a message on the desk.” → She said she would leave a message on the desk.

一般疑问句和特殊疑问句变为宾语从句时,也要注意人称和时态的变化,后面接陈述语序。Eg. “Where are the tickets?” I asked him. → I asked him where the tickets are.

三、宾语从句的时态呼应

宾语从句中谓语动词的时态,常常受到主句谓语时态的制约,此为时态呼应。如果主句谓语是一般现在时或将来时,从句谓语的时态不受限制;如果主句谓语的时态是一般过去时,从句一般要随着改为相应的过去时态(一般过去时、过去进行时、过去将来时、过去完成时)。

eg. I thought (that) you are free today. (╳)

I thought (that) you would be free today. ( √)

【注意】当宾语从句叙述的是客观真理时,不管主句谓语的时态如何,从句都用一般现在时。

eg. The teacher told us (that) the earth moves around the sun.

四.其他需要说明的问题

1.标点由主句决定,如主句是陈述句、祈使句,则用句号;是疑问句则用问号。

eg. I heard she had been to the Great Wall. Can you tell me which bus I should take?

2.要注意个别句子中主从句人称的一致。

▲五.宾语从句和状语从句的区分

eg. 1) I will go out tomorrow if it is fine.

  2) I don't know if the train has arrived.

句1)中if引导的是状语从句。这个从句表示“条件”,修饰主句。整个句子的意思是如果明天天气好,我就出去。句2)中if引导的是宾语从句,充当谓语动词don't know的宾语。整个句子的意思是我不知道火车是否到达。

判断方法:

1.可以从整个句式看。状语从句一般可以放在主句的前面或后面(个别除外),宾语从句只能放在主句谓语动词之后。

2.从引导词看。if充当宾语从句的连接词时,相当于whether, 词义为“是否”,充当状语从句的连接词时,词义为“如果”。when充当宾语从句的连接词时,意为“什么时候”,充当状语从句的连接词时,意为“当……的时候”。

3.从时态看。if和when作连接词时,引导宾语从句要注意:从句的谓语动词的时态应根据主句的时态作相应的变化。if和when充当从属连词时,引导条件和时间状语从句,若主句的谓语动词用一般将来时,则从句的时态应用一般现在时表示将来。

【课外巩固】

1.《中考捷径》第21讲,课内练习选择题,3,4,5,6,7,11,12,第41讲例题、课内练习,课外练习三。

2.《复习导引》26页第3大题,27页第4大题,28页第5大题1,2,3,4,5

同步检测

一、用合适的连接词填空

1. Wang Hai told me _____ he didn't go cycling yesterday afternoon.(how, why)

2. Can you tell me ______ else is going to be on duty today?(who, whom)

3. She said _____ it wouldn't matter much.(that, if)

4. He always thinks ______ he can do better.(how, who)

5. I really don't know ________ the bridge will be finished.(how long, how soon)

6. They don't know _______ we are going hiking.

7. She wanted to know _______ her coat would be ready the next day.

8. I was really surprised at ______ I saw.

9. I don't know ______ so many people crowding round him

10. Do you know ______ shirt it is?

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